Apex Bio Institute Prayagraj
Self Assessment Test Series – I
Biology (Botany & Zoology)

BOTANY (section 'A')
(All 35 Questions are Compulsory)

1. In some plants thalamus contributes to fruit formation. Such fruits are termed as :

A) False fruits

B) Aggregate fruits

c) True fruits

D) Parthenocarpic fruit

Correct Answer :     A

2. Which of the following statements is incorrect ?

A) Biomass decreases from first to fourth trophic level

B) Energy content gradually increases from first to fourth trophic level

c) Number of individuals decreases from first trophic level to fourth trophic level

D) Energy content gradually decreased from first to fourth trophic level

Correct Answer :     B

3. Chromosomal theory of inheritance was proposed by :

A) Sutton and Boveri

B) Bateson and Punnet

c) T.H.Morgan

D) Watson and Crick

Correct Answer :     A

4. Phycoerythrin is the major pigment in :

A) Red algae

B) Blue green algae

c) Green algae

D) Brown algae

Correct Answer :     A

5. Which of the following statements is incorrect about gymnosperms?

A) They are heterosporous

B) Male and female gametophytes are free living

c) Most of them have narrow leaves with thick cuticle

D) Their seeds are not covered

Correct Answer :     B

6. A species which was introduced for ornamentation but has become a trouble-some for aquatic animals in India :

A) Parthenium hysterophorus

B) Eichhornia crassipes

c) Prosopis juliflora

D) Trapa spinosa

Correct Answer :     B

7. Which of the following is the correct floral formula of Liliaceae ?

Correct Answer :     C

8. In Glycine max, the product of biological nitrogen fixation is transported from the root nodules to other parts as :

A) Ammonia

B) Glutamate

c) Nitrates

D) Ureides

Correct Answer :     D

9. Who coined the term ‘Kinetin’ ?

A) Skoog and Miller

B) Darwin

c) Went

D) Kurosawa

Correct Answer :     A

10. Common type of embryosac is :

A) 8-celled and 7-nucleated

B) 7-nucleated and 8-celled

c) 7-celled and 8-nucleated

D) 8-celled and 9-nucleated

Correct Answer :     C

11. During non-cyclic photophosphorylation, when electrons are lost from the reaction centre as PS II, what is the source which replaces these electrons?

A) Oxygen

B) Water

c) Carbon dioxide

D) Light

Correct Answer :     B

12. Which of the following is incorrect about Cyanobacteria ?

A) They are photoautotrophy

B) They lack heterocysts

c) They often form blooms in polluted water bodies

D) They have chlorophyll a similar to green plants

Correct Answer :     B

13. Match the following concerning the activity function and the phytohormone involved & Select the correct option from following :

A) A – (ii), B – (iii), C – (iv), D – (i)

B) A – (iii), B – (iv), C – (ii), D – (i)

c) A – (iv), B – (iii), C – (ii), D – (i)

D) A – (iv), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iii)

Correct Answer :     C

14. Which of the following statements is incorrect ?

A) RuBisCO is a bifunctional enzyme

B) In C4 plants, the site of RuBisCO activity is mesophyll cell

c) The substrate molecule for RuBisCO activity is a 5-carbon compound

D) RuBisCO action requires ATP and NADPH

Correct Answer :     B

15. Match the following techniques or instruments with their usage & Select the correct option from following :

A) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (iv), D – (i)

B) A – (ii), B – (i), C – (iv), D – (iii)

c) A – (iv), B – (iii), C – (ii), D – (i)

D) A – (ii), B – (i), C – (iii), D – (iv)

Correct Answer :     B

16. The rate of decomposition is faster in the ecosystem due to following factors EXCEPT :

A) Detritus rich in sugars

B) Warm and moist environment

c) Presence of aerobic soil microbes

D) Detritus richer in lignin and chitin

Correct Answer :     D

17. For the commercial and industrial production of Citric Acid, which of the following microbes is used ?

A) Aspergillus niger

B) Lactobacillus sp

c) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

D) Clostridium butylicum

Correct Answer :     A

18. The phenomenon of evolution of different species in a given geographical area starting from a point and spreading to other habitats is called :

A) Saltation

B) Co-evolution

c) Natural selection

D) Adaptive radiation

Correct Answer :     D

19. According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) what size (in diameter) of particulate is responsible for causing greater harm to human health ?

A) 3.5 m

B) 3.5 m

c) 4.0 m

D) 3.0 m

Correct Answer :     B

20. Strobili or cones are found in :

A) Pteris

B) Marchantia

c) Equisetum

D) Salvinia

Correct Answer :     C

21. Dissolution of the synaptonemal complex occurs during :

A) Zygotene

B) Diplotene

c) Leptotene

D) Pachytene

Correct Answer :     B

22. Which of the following is not an attribute of population ?

A) Natality

B) Mortality

c) Species interaction

D) Sex ratio

Correct Answer :     C

23. In water hyacinth and water lily, pollination takes place by :

A) water currents only

B) wind and water

c) insects and water

D) insects or wind

Correct Answer :     D

24. Some dividing cells exit the cell cycle and enter vegetative inactive stage. This is called quiescent stage (G0). This process occurs at the end of :

A) G1 phase

B) S phase

c) G2 phase

D) M phase

Correct Answer :     D

25. Ray florets have :

A) Superior ovary

B) Hypogynous ovary

c) Half inferior ovary

D) Inferior ovary

Correct Answer :     D

26. Which of the following pairs is of unicellular algae ?

A) Gelidum and Gracilaria

B) Anabaena and Volvox

c) Chlorella and Spirulina

D) Laminaria and Sargassum

Correct Answer :     C

27. Bt cotton variety that was developed by the introduction of toxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is resistant to :

A) Fungal diseases

B) Plant nematodes

c) Insect predators

D) Insect pests

Correct Answer :     D

28. Grass leaves curl inwards during every dry weather. Select the most appropriate reason from the following :

A) Flaccidity of bulliform cells

B) Shrinkage of air spaces in spongy mesophyll

c) Tyloses in vessels

D) Closure of stomata

Correct Answer :     A

29. Which of the following statements is incorrect ?

A) Claviceps is sources of many alkaloids and LSD

B) Conidia are produced exogenously and ascospores endogenously

c) Yeasts have filamentous bodies with long thread-like hyphae

D) Morels and truffles are edible delicacies

Correct Answer :     C

30. Drug called ‘Heroin’ is synthesized by :

A) acetylation of morphine

B) glycosylation of morphine

c) nitration of morphine

D) methylation of morphine

Correct Answer :     A

31. Match the following organisms with the products they produce & Select the correct option from the following :

A) A – (iii), B – (iv), C – (ii), D – (i)

B) A – (ii), B – (iv), C – (iii), D – (i)

c) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (iv), D – (i)

D) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iv)

Correct Answer :     B

32. Thiobacillus is a group of bacteria helpful in carrying out :

A) Chemoautotrophic fixation

B) Nitrification

c) Denitrification

D) Nitrogen fixation

Correct Answer :     C

33. In Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), a red flower was crossed with a white flower and in F1 generation, pink flowers where obtained. When pink flowers were selfed, the F2 generation showed white, red and pink flowers. Choose the incorrect statement from the following :

Correct Answer :     C

34. In a species, the weight of newborn ranges from 2 to 5 kg. 97% of the newborn with an average weight between 3 to 3.3 kg survive whereas 99% of the infants born with weights from 2 to 2.5 kg or 4.5 to 5 kg die. Which type of selection process is taking place ?

A) Stabilizing Selection

B) Disruptive Selection

c) Cyclical Selection

D) Directional Selection

Correct Answer :     A

35. Respiratory Quotient (RQ) value of tripalmitin is:

A) 0.7

B) 0.07

c) 0.09

D) 0.9

Correct Answer :     A

BOTANY (section 'B')
(Attempt only 10 Questions out of 15)

1. From evolutionary point of view retention of the female gametophyte with developing young embryo on the parent sporophyte for some time, is first observed in :

A) Mosses

B) Pteridophytes

c) Gymnosperms

D) Liverworts

Correct Answer :     D

2. The concept of “Omnis cellula-e cellula” regarding cell division was first proposed by :

A) Theodore Schwann

B) Schleiden

c) Aristotle

D) Rudolf Virchow

Correct Answer :     D

3. It takes very long time for pineapple plant to produce flowers. Which combination of hormones can be applied to artificially induce flowering in pineapple plants throughout the year to increase yield ?

A) Gibberellin and Cytokinin

B) Gibberellin and Abscisic acid

c) Cytokinin and Abscisic acid

D) Auxin and Ethylene

Correct Answer :     D

4. The Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 was called :

A) for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilization of its benefits

B) to assess threat posed to native species by invasive weed species

c) for immediate steps to discontinue use of CFCs that were damaging the ozone layer

D) to reduce CO2 emissions and global warming

Correct Answer :     A

5. Which of the following statements is incorrect ?

A) Viruses are obligate parasites

B) Infective constituent in viruses is the protein coat

c) Prions consist of abnormally folded proteins

D) Viroids lack a protein coat

Correct Answer :     B

6. Phloem in gymnosperms lacks :

A) Sieve tubes only

B) Companion cells only

c) Both sieve tubes and companion cells

D) Albuminous cells and sieve cells

Correct Answer :     C

7. What is the direction of movement of sugars in phloem ?

A) Upward

B) Downward

c) Bi-directional

D) Non-multidirectional

Correct Answer :     C

8. Xylem translocates :

A) Water and mineral salts only

B) Water, mineral salts and some organic nitrogen only

c) Water, mineral salts, some organic nitrogen and hormones

D) Water only

Correct Answer :     C

9. Which of the following is true for Golden rice ?

A) It is pest resistant, with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

B) It is drought tolerant, developed using Agrobacterium vector

c) It has yellow grains, because of a gene introduced from primitive variety of rice

D) It is Vitamin A enriched, with a gene from daffodil

Correct Answer :     D

10. Placentation, in which ovules develop on the inner wall of the ovary or in peripheral part, is :

A) Axile

B) Parietal

c) Free central

D) Basal

Correct Answer :     B

11. Double fertilization is :

A) Syngamy and triple fusion

B) Fusion of two male gametes with one egg

c) Fusion of one male gamete with two polar nuclei

D) Fusion of two male gametes of a pollen tube with two different eggs

Correct Answer :     A

12. Pneumatophores occur in :

A) Submerged hydrophytes

B) Carnivorous plants

c) Free-floating hydrophytes

D) Halophytes

Correct Answer :     D

13. Which one of the following plants shows a very close relationship with a species of moth, where none of the two can complete its life cycle without the other ?

A) Viola

B) Banana

c) Yucca

D) Hydrilla

Correct Answer :     C

14. Sweet potato is a modified :

A) Rhizome

B) Tap root

c) Adventitious root

D) Stem

Correct Answer :     C

15. Casparian strips occur in :

A) Endodermis

B) Cortex

c) Pericycle

D) Epidermis

Correct Answer :     A

ZOOLOGY (section ‘A’)
(All 35 Questions are Compulsory)

1. Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and select the correct option given below :

A) A – (iv), B – (iii), C – (ii), D – (i)

B) A – (i), B – (iv), C – (ii), D – (iii)

c) A – (iii), B – (i), C – (iv), D – (ii)

D) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iv)

Correct Answer :     C

2. Hormones secreted by the placenta to maintain pregnancy are :

A) hCG, progestogens, estrogens, glucocorticoids

B) hCG, hPL, progestogens, estrogens

c) hCG, hPL, estrogens, relaxin, oxytocin

D) hCG, hPL, progestogens, prolactin

Correct Answer :     B

3. The contraceptive ‘SAHELI’ :

A) is a post-coital contraceptive

B) is an IUD

c) increases the concentration of estrogen and prevents ovulation in females

D) blocks estrogen receptors in the uterus, preventing eggs from getting implanted

Correct Answer :     D

4. The differences between spermiogenesis and spermiation is :

A) In spermiogenesis spermatozoa are formed, while in spermiation spermatozoa are released from sertoli cells into the cavity of seminiferous tubules

B) In spermiogenesis spermatozoa from sertoli cells are released into the cavity of seminiferous tubules, while in spermiation spermatozoa are formed

c) In spermiogenesis spermatozoa are formed, while in spermiation spermatids are formed

D) In spermiogenesis spermatids are formed, while in spermiation spermatozoa are formed

Correct Answer :     A

5. Which of the following features is used to identify a male cockroach from a female cockroach ?

A) Presence of anal cerci

B) Forewings with darker tegmina

c) Presence of caudal styles

D) Presence of a boat shaped sternum on the 9th abdominal segment

Correct Answer :     C

6. Which of the following characteristics represent ‘Inheritance of blood groups’ in humans ?

A) A, C and E

B) B, D and E

c) A, B and C

D) B, C and E

Correct Answer :     C

7. Among the following sets of examples for divergent evolution, select the incorrect option :

A) Eye of octopus, bat and man

B) Brain of bat, man and cheetah

c) Heart of bat, man and cheetah

D) Forelimbs of man, bat and cheetah

Correct Answer :     A

8. All of the following are part of an operon except :

A) a promoter

B) an enhancer

c) structural genes

D) an operator

Correct Answer :     B

9. aggtatcgcat is a sequence from the coding strand of a gene. What will be the corresponding sequence of the transcribed mRNA ?





Correct Answer :     D

10. The transparent lens in the human eye is held in its place by :

A) smooth muscles attached to the ciliary body

B) smooth muscles attached to the iris

c) ligaments attached to the iris

D) ligaments attached to the ciliary body

Correct Answer :     D

11. Which of the following hormones can play a significant role in osteoporosis ?

A) Parathyroid hormone and Prolactin

B) Estrogen and Parathyroid hormone

c) Progesterone and Aldosterone

D) Aldosterone and Prolactin

Correct Answer :     B

12. Which of the following structures or regions is incorrectly paired with its functions ?

A) Corpus callosum : band of fibers; connecting left and right cerebral hemispheres

B) Hypothalamus : production of releasing hormones and regulation of temperature, hunger and thirst

c) Limbic system : consists of fibre tracts that interconnect different regions of brain; controls movement

D) Medulla oblongata : controls respiration and cardiovascular reflexes

Correct Answer :     C

13. Which of the following terms describe human dentition ?

A) Pleurodont, Diphyodont, Heterodont

B) Pleurodont, Monophyodont, Homodont

c) Thecodont, Diphyodont, Heterodont

D) Thecodont, Diphyodont, Homodont

Correct Answer :     C

14. Which of the following is commonly used as a vector for introducing a DNA fragment in human lymphocytes ?

A) pBR 322

B) λ phage

c) Ti plasmid

D) Retrovirus

Correct Answer :     D

15. The QRS complex in a standard ECG represents :

A) Depolarization of auricles

B) Depolarization of ventricles

c) Repolarization of ventricles

D) Repolarization of auricles

Correct Answer :     B

16. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (i), B – (iv), C – (ii), D – (iii)

B) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (iv), D – (i)

c) A – (ii), B – (iii), C – (iv), D – (i)

D) A – (iv), B – (iii), C – (i), D – (ii)

Correct Answer :     C

17. Goblet cells of alimentary canal are modified from :

A) Columnar epithelial cells

B) Chondrocytes

c) Compound epithelial cells

D) Squamous epithelial cells

Correct Answer :     A

18. The infectious stage of Plasmodium that enters the human body is :

A) Sporozoites

B) Female gametocytes

c) Male gametocytes

D) Trophozoites

Correct Answer :     A

19. Bilaterally symmetrical and acoelomate animals are exemplified by :

A) Platyhelminthes

B) Aschelminthes

c) Annelida

D) Ctenophora

Correct Answer :     A

20. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (iv), B – (i), C – (ii), D – (iii)

B) A – (i), B – (ii), C – (iv), D – (iii)

c) A – (ii), B – (i), C – (iii), D – (iv)

D) A – (iii), B – (iv), C – (ii), D – (i)

Correct Answer :     D

21. Flippers of Penguins and Dolphins are examples of :

A) Convergent evolution

B) Industrial melanism

c) Natural selection

D) Adaptive radiation

Correct Answer :     A

22. Which one of the following is the most abundant protein in the animals ?

A) Collagen

B) Lectin

c) Insulin

D) Haemoglobin

Correct Answer :     A

23. If the distance between two consecutive base pairs is 0.34 nm and the total number of base pairs of a DNA double helix is a typical mammalian cell is 6.6 × 106 kg, then the length of the DNA is approximately :

A) 2.5 metres

B) 2.2 metres

c) 2.7 metres

D) 2.0 metres

Correct Answer :     B

24. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (i), B – (iii), C – (ii), D – (iv)

B) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (iv), D – (i)

c) A – (iv), B – (iii), C – (i), D – (ii)

D) A – (ii), B – (iv), C – (i), D – (iii)

Correct Answer :     C

25. Select the option including all sexually transmitted diseases :

A) Gonorrhoea, Malaria, Genital herpes

B) AIDS, Malaria, Filaria

c) Cancer, AIDS, Syphilis

D) Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Genital herpes

Correct Answer :     D

26. Identify the wrong statement with reference to transport of oxygen :

A) Partial pressure of CO2 can interfere with O2 binding with Haemoglobin

B) Higher H+ conc. in alveoli favours the formation of oxyhaemoglobin

c) Low pCO2 in alveoli favours the formation of oxyhaemoglobin

D) Binding of oxygen with haemoglobin is mainly related to partial pressure of O2

Correct Answer :     B

27. Which of the following statements are true for the phylum-Chordata ?

A) (iii) and (i)

B) (i) and (ii)

c) (ii) and (iii)

D) (iv) and (iii)

Correct Answer :     C

28. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (iii), B – (i), C – (iv), D – (ii)

B) A – (iv), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iii)

c) A – (i), B – (ii), C – (iv), D – (iii)

D) A – (ii), B – (iii), C – (i), D – (iv)

Correct Answer :     B

29. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iv)

B) A – (iii), B – (i), C – (iv), D – (ii)

c) A – (ii), B – (i), C – (iv), D – (iii)

D) A – (iv), B – (iii), C – (i), D – (ii)

Correct Answer :     B

30. The yellowish fluid “colostrum” secreted by mammary glands of mother during the initial days of lactation has abundant antibodies (IgA) to protect the infant. This type of immunity is called as :

A) Passive immunity

B) Active immunity

c) Acquired immunity

D) Autoimmunity

Correct Answer :     A

31. Cyclosporin A, used as immuno suppression agent, is produced from :

A) Monascus purpureus

B) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

c) Penicillium notatum

D) Trichoderma polysporum

Correct Answer :     D

32. In human beings, at the end of 12 weeks (first trimester) of pregnancy, the following is observed :

A) Eyelids and eyelashes are formed

B) Most of the major organ systems are formed

c) The head is not covered with fine hair

D) The head is covered with fine hair

Correct Answer :     B

33. Which of the following options does correctly represent the characteristic features of phylum Annelida ?

A) Triploblastic, unsegmented body and bilaterally symmetrical

B) Triploblastic, segmented body and bilaterally symmetrical

c) Triploblastic, flattened body and acoelomate condition

D) Diploblastic, mostly marine and radially symmetrical

Correct Answer :     B

34. Match the following group of organisms with their respective distinctive characteristics and select the correct option :

A) A – (iii), B – (iv), C – (i), D – (ii)

B) A – (ii), B – (iii), C – (iv), D – (i)

c) A – (iv), B – (i), C – (ii), D – (iii)

D) A – (i), B – (ii), C – (iii), D – (iv)

Correct Answer :     A

35. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (iv), B – (iii), C – (ii), D – (i)

B) A – (i), B – (ii), C – (iii), D – (iv)

c) A – (i), B – (iii), C – (ii), D – (iv)

D) A – (ii), B – (i), C – (iv), D – (iii)

Correct Answer :     D

ZOOLOGY (section 'B')
(Attempt only 10 Questions out of 15)

1. Which of the following conditions cause erythroblastosis foetalis ?

A) Mother Rh+ve and foetus Rh–ve

B) Mother Rh–ve and foetus Rh+ve

c) Both mother and foetus Rh–ve

D) Both mother and foetus Rh+ve

Correct Answer :     B

2. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (ii), B – (i), C – (iii), D – (iv)

B) A – (iii), B – (i), C – (ii), D – (v)

c) A – (iv), B – (v), C – (i), D – (ii)

D) A – (i), B – (ii), C – (iii), D – (iv)

Correct Answer :     B

3. The specific palindromic sequence which is recognized by EcoRI is :

Correct Answer :     D

4. Cuboidal epithelium with brush border of microvilli is found in :

A) ducts of salivary glands

B) proximal convoluted tubule of nephron

c) eustachian tube

D) lining of intestine

Correct Answer :     B

5. In gel electrophoresis, separated DNA fragments can be visualized with the help of :

A) Ethidium bromide in UV radiation

B) Acetocarmine in UV radiation

c) Ethidium bromide in infrared radiation

D) Acetocarmine in bright blue light

Correct Answer :     A

6. Select the correct events that occur during inspiration :

A) (iii) and (iv)

B) (i), (ii) and (iv)

c) only (iv)

D) (i) and (ii)

Correct Answer :     D

7. Match the following columns and select the correct option :

A) A – (iv), B – (i), C – (ii), D – (iii)

B) A – (iii), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iv)

c) A – (ii), B – (i), C – (iii), D – (iv)

D) A – (i), B – (iii), C – (ii), D – (iv)

Correct Answer :     A

8. Presence of which of the following conditions in urine and indicative of Diabetes Mellitus ?

A) Uremia and Renal Calculi

B) Ketonuria and Glycosuria

c) Renal calculi and Hyperglycaemia

D) Uremia and Ketonuria

Correct Answer :     B

9. Which of the following statements is not correct ?

A) The proinsulin has an extra peptide called C-peptide

B) The functional insulin has A and B chains linked together by hydrogen bonds

c) Genetically engineered insulin is produced in E.Coli

D) In man insulin is synthesized as a proinsulin

Correct Answer :     B

10. Select the correct option :

A) 11th and 12th pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum with the help of hyaline cartilage

B) Each rib is a flat thin bone and all the ribs are connected dorsally to the thoracic vertebrae and ventrally to the sternum

c) There are seven pairs of vertebrosternal, three pairs of vertebrochondral and two pairs of vertebral ribs

D) 8th, 9th and 10th pairs of ribs articulate directly with the sternum

Correct Answer :     C

11. Due to increasing air-borne allergens and pollutants, may people in urban areas are suffering from respiratory disorder causing wheezing due to :

A) Inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles

B) Proliferation of fibrous tissues and damage of the alveolar walls

c) Reduction in the secretion of surfactants by pneumocytes

D) Benign growth on mucous lining of nasal cavity

Correct Answer :     A

12. Use of an artificial kidney during hemodialysis may result in :

A) (2) and (3) are correct

B) (3) and (4) are correct

c) (1) and (4) are correct

D) (1) and (2) are correct

Correct Answer :     B

13. Select the correct sequence for transport of sperms cells in male reproductive system :

A) Seminiferous tubules → Rete testis → Vasa efferentia → Epididymis → Vas deferens → Ejaculatory duct → Urethra → Urethral meatus

B) Seminiferous tubules → Vasa efferentia → Epididymis → Inguinal canal → Urethra

c) Testis → Epididymis → Vasa efferentia → Vas deferens → Ejaculatory duct → Inguinal canal → Urethra → Urethral meatus

D) Testis → Epididymis → Vasa efferentia → Rete testis → Inguinal canal → Urethra

Correct Answer :     A

14. Calcium is important in skeletal muscle contraction because it :

A) Prevents the formation of bonds between the myosin cross bridges and the actin filament

B) Detaches the myosin head from the actin filament

c) Activates the myosin ATPase by binding to it

D) Binds to troponin to remove the masking of active sites on actin for myosin

Correct Answer :     D

15. Which one of the following statements is totally wrong about the occurrence of notochord, while the other three are correct?

A) It is present only in larval tail in ascidian

B) It is replaced by a vertebral column in adult frog

c) It is absent throughout life in humans from the very beginning

D) It is present throughout the life in amphioxus

Correct Answer :     C